Dillon County was named for James W. Dillon (1826-1913), a prominent local resident. The county seat was also named for him. Dillon County was formed in 1910 from Marion County. Swamps and rivers kept this section of the Pee Dee isolated for many years, but the construction of a railroad in the nineteenth century brought increased development. The residents primarily engaged in cotton and tobacco farming and in timber harvesting. Composer Carlisle Floyd was born in the Dillon County town of Latta.